Friday, May 14, 2010

Car battery. How to make friends with him?

Many car owners at least once in your life got in trouble situations involving refusal battery. How many bad words at this point, there was also addressed to the battery, and the address of the manufacturer thereof, and addressed neither the innocent relatives. So I want to share experiences, to help fans get to know your car battery. 

Briefly - what is the battery? The basis of the battery remains the same: two lead plates immersed in electrolyte (sulfuric acid). At the plate affixed paste of lead oxide. When charging the battery on one of the plates released hydrogen, restoring oxide to metallic lead, on the other - the oxygen carrying the oxide to peroxide. 

The entire design is transformed into a galvanic cell with electrodes made of lead and lead peroxide. In the process of detente peroxide deoxidized, and the metallic lead converted into oxide. These reactions are accompanied by the emergence of the electric current which will flow through the circuit so long as the electrodes will not be the same - covered with lead oxide. 

The first step - the acquisition of the battery (CRA). The best option: the battery capacity should be equal to or slightly less than the amperage listed on the generator (ie, for example, if the force produced by a generator listed current 60 A, then the acquired capacity of the battery should be 55-60 A / hour). Do not think that setting on your car battery larger capacity you simplify your life. The reason lies in the charge-discharge cycles. 

If the discharge - the value of relatively constant (pagoda, electrical work), then the charge of the battery depends on the generator. If the battery is regularly nedozaryazhatsya, for a long time he did not "stretch". And the flip side: if the capacity of the battery will be much smaller than the generator produces, again will be the destruction of the plates as a result of overcharging. 

Choosing the battery in the store, pay attention to his appearance - he should not have dents, mechanical damage, terminals should be in the form of a truncated cone and not have nedolivov lead, cracks, dents, and should not be heavily oxidized. You may also want to check with the seller's date of issue - long stood for the battery to be discharged (manufacturers recommend that after months of "downtime" must recharge the battery). In addition, ask the seller to check the battery - EMF (voltage of rest) should not be less than 12.6 and the density of the electrolyte 1.28 ± 0,001 g / cc. Having bought the battery, be sure to read the instruction manual. 

By installing the battery on the car, do not forget that you must first it securely. If you want to remove oxides from terminals and lugs fine sandpaper, then wipe with a cloth. In my practice was a case where I could not make his car, stood in the damp weather a couple of weeks. Although EDS battery was 12.64 V. It was only clearing the terminals of the oxide; I was able to start the engine. Connect the first tip of "+" and then "-" before turning off all consumers (cassette, air conditioning, lighting, etc.). When you install and transportation do not let tilt battery over 45 º C. And do not forget to always remove the packing film (if any). 

A very important point - the care of the battery. Here we must distinguish several basic points. 

1. Checking the strength of mounting the battery. 

Verification of strength of attachment to produce short and simple - open the hood, move the battery and close the hood. If this is not done, in a "beautiful moment" attachment may weaken and the consequences can vary - from holes in the back, before the fire. 

2. Check the status of terminals and battery terminals. 

Check the status of terminals and terminal is disconnected from the terminals and terminals clean and those of other oxides. To reduce the formation of oxides use any insulating anti-corrosive composition (you can use a simple litho logic). 

3. Control of surface cleanliness battery. 

The surface of the battery should be clean, not only for beauty. Dust and dirt on the lid of the battery can be electrically conductive and at rest contribute to self-discharge batteries, especially for long-term parking. 

April. Control of charge / battery. 

The state of charge is checked tester (voltmeter) with run-down engine. The voltage of rest should be not less than 12.5 V. At a lower value is needed dozaryadka, which is held charger constant current value of 10% of battery capacity (example: if the capacity of 55 A / hour - charging current to produce 5,5 A, 80 A / hour - 8 A, etc.) to the value 13.4-14.0 V. The electrolyte temperature during charging shall not exceed 60 º C. 

Of course, not everyone has the opportunity to check the temperature of electrolyte, so try to hand housing batteries. Boiling should not be, but the appearance of bubbles is allowed. Recharge spend in a ventilated place and in any case there is no smoke or light a fire - when charging is actively released hydrogen, and mixed with oxygen in the ambient air, it forms an explosive mixture. 

Do not leave discharged batteries in the winter in unheated room - at a low density of the electrolyte can freeze (not uncommon). Naturally, this battery will only throw it away, because it will not be accepted for replacement under warranty. 

5. Control of level and density of the electrolyte. 

The normal level of electrolyte - a few millimeters (3-5) above the bridge with the plates, is determined visually. Do not see the bridges - look at the plates, the normal level of about 15-20 mm above the upper edge of the plates. If the level of low, add distilled water (and in any case - electrolyte!). 

The normal density of the electrolyte ranges from 1.27-1.29 g / cc (checked hydrometer). If the density is higher - dilute with distilled water (do not forget about the level), if lower - need dozaryadka. By the way, the degree of suction can be defined and the density of the electrolyte. 

Do not forget about the temperature - density is reduced to a temperature of 20 º C. For every 10 º C the density is changed to 0,007 g / cc. That is, if at 20 º C normal density of 1.28 g / cc, then at 0 º C normal density is already 1.28 +0.014 = 1.294 g / cc, and at +40 º C - 1.28-0.014 = 1.266 g / cc. 

At the same time, check electrolyte on the transparency several times, type and pour it hydrometer. If at least one bank electrolyte is opaque, many particles namazki, color dark or reddish - prepare to replace the battery, because began the process of destruction of plates. 

In addition to the above, remember the ambient temperature. In warm weather, the battery heats up more, consequently, the evaporation of water from the electrolyte occurs more intensively. Due to which decreases the level of electrolyte and increases its density. A higher density leads to accelerated destruction of the active mass plates. 

6. Check the vents designed to release gases. 

Ventilation holes - in a traffic jam or in the lid - designed for free exit of the gases. Therefore, they should always be open and clean. Otherwise, possible explosion. 

7. Checking the battery charge. 

Periodically check the battery charge. When a routine engine and headlights turned compete voltage at the terminals of batteries - it must be within the range 13.8-14.2 V. Leaving the car for a few days, be sure to turn off "a lot" or remove the negative terminal of (to avoid discharge, short circuit).

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